Meine Merkliste Geteilte Merkliste

Current Developments in Germany

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Current Developments in Germany

Jan Schneider Marcus Engler

/ 4 Minuten zu lesen

After the Second World War Germany adopted a comparatively permissive approach to the right to asylum. This was severely curbed by a reform known as "Asylum Compromise" in 1992/1993, leading to decreasing numbers of asylum applications. However, since 2009 the number of asylum claims has jumped to high levels once again. Therefore, refuge and asylum issues have re-entered center stage in German domestic politics.

March 2015: Teenage Somalian refugee in his room at an assisted living facility provided by the Stuttgart Youth Welfare Office. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

Rising Number of Asylum Applications

Since its low point in 2007, when only about 20,000 first-time applications were registered, the number of asylum claims has been rising steadily. In 2014, more than 173,000 first-time applications for asylum were filed, a number last recorded in 1993. Germany has therefore regained its place as one of the main destinations for asylum seekers, in comparison to other industrial states internationally and in the EU. Together with the USA, Germany recorded by far the highest absolute number of asylum claims in the period 2010 to 2014, with more than 400,000 initial applications filed in each of the two countries. When it comes to the number of asylum applications in relation to population size, Germany is in the upper mid-range of industrial states.

Info boxWhy do asylum seekers come to Germany?

In 2014, 600,000 asylum applications were filed in the EU, one third of them in Germany. A question regularly raised in public debate is why people are increasingly choosing to seek protection in Germany, and not in other European states with a more appealing geographic location. In many arguments, this is solely attributed to the comparatively high social security benefits for refugees in Germany. Numerous studies on the choice of destination have shown, however, that this is a very narrow and one-sided view, which does not take the complexity of such decisions into account. It is true that the country's prosperity and the level of social security benefits play a role in the choice of destination, yet these aspects are not more important than other factors, such as the level of protection and accommodation standards. In fact, it is existing social networks that are of paramount importance with regard to destination choice. This may explain the huge divergence in refugees' countries of origin that can be observed when comparing the refugee population in different EU Member States. For example, Germany receives many asylum claims from Afghans, Syrians and citizens of West Balkan countries because there are already larger communities of these groups in Germany than in other European states.*

* Scholz (2013); Brekke/Aarset (2009), Nordlund/Pelling (2012), Neumayer (2004); SVR (2014); Baraulina et al. (2007).

High Recognition Rates

In public debate, special attention is attributed to recognition rates, that is, the share of positive asylum decisions measured against all decisions taken on asylum claims. Low recognition rates are sometimes regarded as an indication of asylum seekers' non-existent need for protection, or of alleged asylum abuse in order to claim social benefits. In fact, recognition rates have to be looked at carefully. Low recognition rates – the media sometimes misleadingly only reports refugee recognition in accordance with Article 16a of the German Constitution – may be a result of a state's restrictive approach to granting asylum. A useful indicator is therefore the "gross recognition rate" (Gesamtschutzquote), which encompasses all forms of protection (right to asylum in accordance with Article 16a of German Basic Law, Geneva Convention refugees, subsidiary protection). In 2014, the "gross recognition rate" was at 31.5 percent, equal to the average of the last eight years (see Figure 2).

The significant rise in recognition rates since 2007 is the result of the implementation of the EU Qualification Directive, according to which non-State persecution has to be recognized more strongly as a reason for granting protection. In fact, the level of recognition is even higher if so-called "formal decisions" are excluded. These are decisions made without closer examination as to the content of the asylum application, e.g. because, according to the Dublin Regulation, another EU Member State is responsible for processing the application. In 2014, the so-called "adjusted gross recognition rate" was 48.5 percent. The actual recognition rate is even higher because some court appeals against negative asylum decisions by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) are successful. So far, the rise in the number of asylum seekers has not led to a decreasing level of recognition.

Resettlement Program

Figure 2: Recognition rates, 2005-2014 (© bpb)

In the past, the Federal Republic of Germany has occasionally been involved in the resettlement of refugees, for example in the case of Vietnamese boat people, or the admission of 2,500 Iraqi refugees from Syria and Jordan in 2009 and 2010, within the framework of EU-wide coordinated action. However, it is only since 2012 that Germany has offered a regular resettlement program with a fixed annual number of resettlement places. The program was adopted by decision of the Standing Conference of Ministers of the Interior of the Länder. In an initial pilot phase from 2012 to 2014, 300 refugees were accepted annually within the framework of the UNHCR resettlement program. In their coalition agreement for the 18th legislative period, the CDU, CSU and SPD agreed on consolidating the resettlement procedure and making more admission places available. So far, the number of resettlement places has only risen slightly: 500 are available in 2015.

Temporary Admission Programs

In reaction to the Syrian refugee crisis, Germany was one of the few European states to launch large-scale humanitarian programs for the temporary admission of Syrian refugees, complementary to the regular asylum procedure. In May 2013, the first federal program for the reception of 5,000 refugees was set up; in December 2013, the federal government agreed to accept another 5,000 Syrian refugees, and in June 2014 it decided to enlarge the program once again and make another 10,000 places available. Refugees accepted in the framework of this program come to Germany from Syria's neighboring countries (especially from Lebanon) without having to undergo the regular asylum procedure. They are initially granted a two-year residence permit and are immediately entitled to work. In addition to the federal program, 15 Länder (with the exception of Bavaria) drafted admission decrees, allowing Syrians already living in Germany to bring their relatives to Germany, on the condition that they pay for the costs of accommodation and living. It was these obligations, however, that proved to be too high a hurdle for many families. Additionally, refugee organizations criticized the fact that the admission programs were agreed upon too late and implemented too slowly to provide effective relief.

New Controversies

The significant rise in the number of asylum claims since 2010 has reignited the debate on asylum and refugee protection. Municipalities in Germany are confronted with huge challenges regarding the accommodation of refugees. At the same time, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees did not have sufficient staff to process the asylum applications, so the backlog has grown – even though the current government parties pledged to reduce the length of asylum procedures to three months in their coalition agreement of 2013.

In particular, the large number of asylum applications filed by Serbians, Macedonians and citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina have fuelled a new debate on "asylum abuse," in light of the low recognition rates for their asylum claims (2014: <0.5 percent). After the abolition of the visa requirement for citizens of these countries in December 2009, and an increase in social benefits following a verdict of the German Constitutional Court of July 2012, the number of asylum applications escalated. As a result of the coalition negotiations in the fall of 2013, Serbia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were added to the list of safe countries of origin. Since this legal measure entered into force at the beginning of November 2014 the number of asylum applications has slightly dropped. In exchange for this, Parliament passed a legislative package in September 2014, reducing the ban on work for asylum seekers from nine to three months and making residence requirements less restrictive, along with other provisions. Until then, the so-called Residenzpflicht had obliged asylum seekers to stay in the administrative district of the reception center in which they were accommodated, only allowing them to leave this territory in exceptional cases and on the basis of a formal request.

At the beginning of 2015, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees registered rising numbers of asylum applications lodged by citizens of Kosovo, which, so far, has not been declared a "safe country of origin". However, only very few Kosovars were granted some form of humanitarian protection. Since February 2015 their applications are examined in an expedited procedure, generally within two or three weeks. In combination with very low recognition rates and information campaigns in Kosovo this measure has led to a significant drop in asylum claims of Kosovars.

The local municipalities respond to the challenges of receiving refugees in different ways. In many places, the population shows huge solidarity and provides support for refugees. Elsewhere, however, citizens' movements react to the establishment of new refugee accommodation in a skeptical or even hostile manner. In this context, numerous protests against the reception of asylum seekers have been initiated or exploited by radical right-wing actors such as the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). So far, nevertheless, solidarity and the willingness to take in refugees have prevailed within the population, and the current situation is different to the one at the beginning of the 1990s. According to a study published in 2014, 24 percent of Germany's population stated that they would support citizens' initiatives against the establishment of refugee shelters; in 1992, 37 percent of the population shared that attitude. In the same period, the share of those who explicitly said they would not vote against the erection of shelters for asylum seekers increased from 41 percent to 51 percent of the population.

This text is part of the policy brief Interner Link: German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection: The Prospects of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS).

Dr. Jan Schneider heads the research unit of the Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration, and is a Research Fellow of the Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (Hamburg Institute of International Economics, HWWI).
Email: E-Mail Link: jan.schneider@info-migration.de

Marcus Engler is a social scientist and senior researcher at the research unit of the Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration. His research focuses on refuge and asylum issues. He is a long-standing member of the editorial staff of the newsletter "Migration und Bevölkerung." Email: E-Mail Link: engler@network-migration.org