Beleuchteter Reichstag

13.9.2021 | Von:
Anja Linnekugel, Hans-Hermann Hertle

The Wall: 1961-2021 - Part Two

A Tour in Berlin

Here you find explanations about 40 locations at the Berlin Wall and their history.

Bildmontage: Berliner Mauer in der Zimmerstraße Berlin-MitteBildmontage: Berliner Mauer in der Zimmerstraße Berlin-Mitte (© Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bildmontage Alexander Kupsch)

40 places at the Wall:
1: Entenschnabel, Glienicke/Nordbahn, adjoining Berlin-Reinickendorf
2: Reinickendorf, adjoining Pankow, S-Bahn station Wilhelmsruh
3. Viewing Pankow, adjoining Mitte/Bösebrücke
4: Mitte, Bernauer Strasse/corner of Swinemünder Strasse
5: Mitte, Bernauer Strasse 39
6: Mitte, Mauerweg on Bernauer Strasse
7: Mitte, Kieler Strasse, near Berlin-Spandauer Ship CanalSchifffahrtskanal (canal)
8: Mitte, Invalidenstrasse, view of the Federal Ministry of Economy
9: Mitte, Reichstag, Friedrich-Ebert-Platz
10: Mitte, Reichstag, Scheidemannstrasse/corner of Dorotheenstrasse and Ebertstrasse
11: Mitte, picture of Brandenburger Tor taken from Ebertstrasse
12: Mitte, Potsdamer Platz, corner of Ebertstrasse and Hans-von-Bülow-Strasse
13: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Erna-Berger-Strasse
14: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse
15: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Niederkirchnerstrasse
16: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Wilhelmstrasse and Zimmerstrasse
17: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Zimmerstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse
18: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Zimmerstrasse, looking east
19: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)
20: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)
21: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Charlottenstrasse and Zimmerstrasse, view from Friedrichstrasse
22: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Alexandrinenstrasse and Stallschreiberstrasse, view along Stallschreiberstrasse
23: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse
24: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse
25: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Legiendamm/Waldemarstrasse, view of St.-Michael’s-Church
26: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Leuschnerdamm adjoining Engelbecken
27/28: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/Bethaniendamm
29: Mitte adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Köpenicker Strasse/Bethaniendamm, looking towards St.-Thomas-Church
30: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Osthafen, view of Oberbaumbrücke
31: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Oberbaum Bridge
32: Treptow-Köpenick, Lohmühlenstrasse and Jordanstrasse
33: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Onckenstrasse, view from Onckenstrasse, looking east
34: Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Bouchéstrasse
35: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow
36: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow
37: Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Heidelberger Strasse and Bouchéstrasse
38: Dreilinden, municipality of Kleinmachnow, Brandenburg
39: Potsdam, view of Berlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Glienicker Brücke (bridge)
40: Spandau borough, Staaken station


1: Entenschnabel, Glienicke/Nordbahn, adjoining Berlin-Reinickendorf

Entenschnabel, Glienicke/Nordbahn, adjoining Berlin-ReinickendorfEntenschnabel, Glienicke/Nordbahn, adjoining Berlin-Reinickendorf (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

In the north, the border protruded into the western borough of Reinickendorf. Because of its peculiar form, citizens called this part of the borderline ‘Entenschnabel ’ (duck bill). Inside the Entenschnabel, there were several detached buildings surrounded by the Wall, with their gardens touching the border. The inhabitants had to adhere to special rules, so that at times they were not even allowed to leave their houses. Visitors, including handymen and doctors, needed to apply for a special permit to enter the area. An estimated 50 people escaped through nearby tunnels in 1962 and 1963. The last remnants of the Wall here were removed in the early 1990s.

2: Reinickendorf, adjoining Pankow, S-Bahn station Wilhelmsruh

Reinickendorf, adjoining Pankow, S-Bahn station WilhelmsruhReinickendorf, adjoining Pankow, S-Bahn station Wilhelmsruh (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Today, Berlin-Wilhelmsruh is a part of the borough of Pankow. It borders on Reinickendorf in the north-west. The Berlin Wall almost turned Wilhelmsruh into an enclave. Kopenhagener Strasse was blocked and the S-Bahn station was shut down. Border patrol soldiers killed two people in the area: 20-year-old Dorit Schmiel, who died trying to cross the border on February 19, 1962, and Johannes Muschol, who was killed as he disorientedly jumped into the death strip from West Berlin on March 16, 1981.

3. Viewing Pankow, adjoining Mitte/Bösebrücke

Viewing Pankow, adjoining Mitte/BösebrückeViewing Pankow, adjoining Mitte/Bösebrücke (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

Today, the Bösebrücke bridge is an important tramway connection between the neighborhoods of Prenzlauer Berg (Pankow borough) and Wedding (Mitte borough). When Berlin was divided, the bridge was the site of a border checkpoint that was mainly used by West Berliners, citizens of the Federal Republic, and diplomats. The S-Bahn station below the bridge was closed and the trains travelled through it without stopping. On August 23, 1962, GDR police officer Hans-Dieter Wesa was shot and killed by his fellow officers after already reaching West Berlin. This is also where, on the night of November 9, 1989, tens of thousands of East Berliners headed for West Berlin. Caving to the pressure, Stasi (secret police) officers immediately stopped controlling passports. On November 9, 2013, an area that had been part of the border checkpoint was given the name “Platz des 9. November 1989” (November 9, 1989, square).

4: Mitte, Bernauer Strasse/corner of Swinemünder Strasse

Mitte, Bernauer Strasse/corner of Swinemünder StrasseMitte, Bernauer Strasse/corner of Swinemünder Strasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Swinemünder Strasse extends between the boroughs of Wedding (Gesundbrunnen neighborhood) and Mitte. Today, it belongs to Mitte. The Berlin Wall divided the street from August 13, 1961 onward. It traced the border between the Soviet sector and the French sector. To recall the victims of the Berlin Wall, the local government installed a small monument in 1982 on the corner of Bernauer Strasse and Swinemünder Strasse. Between August and October 1961, four people tried to escape from here to the West: Ida Siekmann, Rudolf Urban, Olga Segler, and Bernd Lünser. They all died from the injuries they incurred after jumping from buildings on Bernauer Strasse. During this time, many people got hurt trying to escape and frequently wound up in the nearby Lazarus-Krankenhaus hospital. The red arrow in the picture was drawn by a West Berlin police officer. It marks a sign that reads: “Road closure caused by the wall of shame!” (In German: „Straßensperrung verursacht durch die Schandmauer!“).

5: Mitte, Bernauer Strasse 39

Mitte, Bernauer Strasse 39Mitte, Bernauer Strasse 39 (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

While Bernauer Strasse belonged to the West Berlin borough of Wedding, the houses on the south side of the street were part of the East Berlin borough of Mitte. As many people tried to escape from here, SED leaders first had the doors of the buildings barricaded. Then, in September 1961, the inhabitants were forced to move and the windows were permanently closed up. After 1963, the buildings were demolished. Only the ground floor facades remained, establishing a broad corridor or “death strip”. Since the soil underneath Bernauer Strasse is suitable for tunnel construction, several escape tunnels were built; most started from the basements of houses on the western side. Two of the best-known escape routes, “Tunnel 29” and “Tunnel 57,” were used by a total of 86 people. As late as November 19, 1986, a man managed to climb over the border installations near Brunnenstrasse. Although 12 shots were fired, he narrowly escaped.

6: Mitte, Mauerweg on Bernauer Strasse


Mitte, Mauerweg on Bernauer StrasseMitte, Mauerweg on Bernauer Strasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

Before being demolished, a church stood in the way of the Wall. The nave of the Versöhnungskirche (“reconciliation church”) was destroyed on January 22, its bell tower on January 28, 1985. In the 1990s, the Kapelle der Versöhnung (“chapel of reconciliation”) was built on the foundation of the former church and was inaugurated in 2000. One of its aims is to commemorate the people who died at the Wall. Along with an archive and an open-air exhibit, the chapel is part of the education initiative of Stiftung Berliner Mauer (Berlin Wall Foundation). Parts of the Wall that have not been removed can also be found at the site. On the right, the foundation of a residential building is seen underneath a canopy. . All the buildings were eventually demolished starting from the mid-1960s. Nearby, at the end of Bergstrasse, Ernst Mundt was shot dead while trying to escape on September 4, 1962. A few weeks later, on November 27, 1962, seventeen-year-old Otfried Reck would meet the same fate.

7: Mitte, Kieler Strasse, near Berlin-Spandauer Ship CanalSchifffahrtskanal (canal)

Mitte, Kieler Strasse, near Berlin-Spandauer Ship CanalSchifffahrtskanal (canal)Mitte, Kieler Strasse, near Berlin-Spandauer Ship CanalSchifffahrtskanal (canal) (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

In Berlin, the border ran alongside the western bank of the Berlin-Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal. Today, a watchtower can still be found on the eastern side. It belonged to the Kieler Eck border patrol command center, which was responsible for monitoring this section of the border. A rapid response team stood by to prevent escapees from fleeing to the West. On August 24, 1961, a few hundred meters from here in the urban harbour of Humboldthafen the tailor Günter Litfin, 24, was shot and killed as he tried to escape to West Berlin. He was the first to succumb to the GDR government’s shoot-to-kill order.

8: Mitte, Invalidenstrasse, view of the Federal Ministry of Economy

Mitte, Invalidenstrasse, view of the Federal Ministry of EconomyMitte, Invalidenstrasse, view of the Federal Ministry of Economy (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

The border crossing at Invalidenstrasse was used both East and West Berliners, as well as other GDR citizens, mostly retirees. Today, the former train station Hamburger Bahnhof is home to a museum of contemporary art (Museum für Gegenwart/zeitgenössische Kunstsammlungen). The ministry of economy and energy and the ministry of traffic and digital infrastructure are located here, as well as a museum of natural history (Naturkundemuseum). On May 12, 1963, a spectacular escape attempt was made at the Invalidenstrasse border crossing: Eight young East Berliners stole a city bus, which they then tried to crash through the concrete barriers. By the time the bus reached the Wall, it was already under heavy fire from the GDR border patrol. With just one meter to go to reach the West, the bus was so riddled with bullets that it came to a halt. The escapees, including three young men, were severely hurt and sent to prison.

9: Mitte, Reichstag, Friedrich-Ebert-Platz

Mitte, Reichstag, Friedrich-Ebert-PlatzMitte, Reichstag, Friedrich-Ebert-Platz (© ildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

After the Wall’s construction, barrier installations remained between the British and the Soviet Sector, just behind the Reichstag. As a result of the Four Power Agreement on Berlin in 1971, the Bundestag (West German parliament) lost the right to hold plenary sessions in Berlin. Only committees and separate parliamentary groups gained entry. On the right is the former residence of the Reichstag presidents (Reichstagspräsidentenpalais). From 1949 to 1959, it was home to the Institute for Marxism/Leninism (Institut für Marxismus-Leninismus), run by the Central Committee of the SED. Later, it was occupied by a state-owned record manufacturer, the Volkseigener Betrieb Deutsche Schallplatten. Today, the non-partisan parliamentary association Deutsche Parlamentarische Gesellschaft (DPG) resides here. The building is located next to the Jakob-Kaiser-Haus, an office building that belongs to the Bundestag. When parliament is in session, MPs can be see walking from here to the plenary. Otherwise, they use the tunnel that connects both parts of the Bundestag.

10: Mitte, Reichstag, Scheidemannstrasse/corner of Dorotheenstrasse and Ebertstrasse

Mitte, Reichstag, Scheidemannstrasse/corner of Dorotheenstrasse and EbertstrasseMitte, Reichstag, Scheidemannstrasse/corner of Dorotheenstrasse and Ebertstrasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

From 1914 until the end of the war in 1945, VDI – the national association of engineers – was was headquartered in a building that would later become part of East Berlin. Today, the building belongs to the Bundestag. On October 3, 1990, the national celebration of German reunification took place before the western entrance to the Reichstag. On June 20, 1991, following extended public and parliamentary debate, the German parliament voted by a simple majority (338 vs. 320 votes) to move the German government back to Berlin. In 1999, the keys were handed over to the German president and, from September 8, 1999 on, the Bundestag’s plenary sessions took place in the Reichstag. Nearby, on the banks of the river Spree, there is an installation of white crosses, intended to recall the citizens who were killed at the Berlin Wall.

11: Mitte, picture of Brandenburger Tor taken from Ebertstrasse

Mitte, picture of Brandenburger Tor taken from EbertstrasseMitte, picture of Brandenburger Tor taken from Ebertstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Brandenburg Gate was severely damaged in the Second World War. After the Wall was built, it was surrounded by the barrier installations and completely inaccessible. On the western side, tourists could look at the Brandenburg Gate and East Berlin from elevated platforms. There was a platform on the eastern side as well, but only official guests were allowed to use it. On the night of November 9 and 10, 1989, citizens from both sides of the Wall celebrated its demise at the Brandenburg Gate. On December 22, 1989, more than 100,000 people cheered as the landmark was reopened. The ceremony was attended by Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans-Dietrich Genscher, West Berlin’s governor Walter Momper, and Hans Modrow, the last prime minister of the GDR. Today, the Brandenburg Gate stands as a symbol of the German reunification.

12: Mitte, Potsdamer Platz, corner of Ebertstrasse and Hans-von-Bülow-Strasse

Mitte, Potsdamer Platz, corner of Ebertstrasse and Hans-von-Bülow-StrasseMitte, Potsdamer Platz, corner of Ebertstrasse and Hans-von-Bülow-Strasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Before the war, all the pubs and amenities in Haus Vaterland (the large ruin) helped make Potsdamer Platz one of the most frequented squares in Europe. Most of the square would be destroyed and, after the war, it was a border triangle situated between the Soviet, British and American sectors. The area also transformed into a popular black market. The square was an important site during the uprising against the GDR government on June 17, 1953.From August 13, 1961, the Berlin Wall cut through Potsdamer Platz and gradually the remaining buildings were almost completely demolished. The “death strip” installed between the main wall and a second wall to secure the hinterland was broader than almost anywhere else in the city. After the reunification, ground was broken for the construction of a new neighborhood.

13: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Erna-Berger-Strasse

Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Erna-Berger-StrasseMitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Erna-Berger-Strasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

In 1930, Königgrätzer Strasse was renamed Stresemannstrasse in honor of Gustav Stresemann (foreign minister and chancellor of the Weimar Republic, d. 1929). Beginning in 1961, the Wall divided Stresemannstrasse (near Potsdamer Platz). The borough Mitte (left) thus became a part of East Berlin and Kreuzberg (right) a part of West Berlin. Today, the Federal Ministry of the Environment is headquartered in the other building on the left side . Remnants of the Wall (seen on the left) were integrated into the building extension. The former “death strip” is once again a city street.

14: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, corner of Stresemannstrasse and NiederkirchnerstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, corner of Stresemannstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

In 1962, West Berlin police took pictures from Stresemannstrasse towards Potsdamer Platz of strictly monitored “repair activities” on the Berlin Wall. After the construction of the Wall, the Soviet section of the street became part of the death strip. Most buildings were destroyed in the war. It was not until the late 1980s that new structures were built on the westside for the International Architecture Exhibition, mostly as subsidized housing and to re-populate neglected areas.

15: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Niederkirchnerstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, NiederkirchnerstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Niederkirchnerstrasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

After the Wall was built along Niederkirchnerstrasse, the street and its sidewalk became part of East Berlin’s Mitte. The surface of the road and sidewalks belonged to the East Berlin borough of Mitte. The building on the right, which formerly housed the Prussian parliament, is now home to Berlin’s parliament. The building belonged to East Berlin until 1989. On the opposite side of the street, there are regular exhibitions in the Gropiusbau (Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough). Along Niederkirchnerstrasse, an intact segment of so-called border wall 75 (Grenzmauer 75) – the border installation closest to West Berlin – can still be found. Behind the Wall remnants lies the Topography of Terror Memorial. During the Nazi dictatorship, secret police, Gestapo, and SS headquarters, as well as the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) were located here. Today, this historic site is used to educate visitors about National Socialism.

16: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Wilhelmstrasse and Zimmerstrasse

Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Wilhelmstrasse and ZimmerstrasseMitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Wilhelmstrasse and Zimmerstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

In the Nazi era, the ministry of aviation was located on Wilhelmstrasse, an avenue that connects the boroughs of Kreuzberg and Mitte. After the Second World War, the Soviet military administration installed its temporary headquarters on the premises. The GDR was founded here on October 7, 1949. Several other GDR ministries would occupy this building in the years that followed. On June 17, 1953, tens of thousands protested the SED regime in front of the Leipziger Strasse entrance. Today, a monument commemorates the uprising. In the 1990s, the Treuhandanstalt (an agency entrusted with reprivatizing GDR companies) was headquartered here. In 1992, the building was renamed Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus in remembrance of the murdered Treuhand director. In 1999, the ministry of finance moved in. On April 3, 1975, Herbert Halli (21) was shot and killed at the corner of Wilhelmstrasse and Zimmerstrasse trying to flee East Germany.

17: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Zimmerstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Zimmerstrasse and NiederkirchnerstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg, adjoining Mitte, Zimmerstrasse and Niederkirchnerstrasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

A large part of the actual border that went along Niederkirchnerstrasse and Zimmerstrasse can still be seen here. Today, the ministry of finance is located in the building on the right side. Before the fall of the Wall, it was called “Haus der Ministerien” (house of ministries). It is historically significant: On October 7, 1949, the GDR was founded here. In 1965, it was the site of one of the era’s most spectacular escapes: Heinz Holzapfel and his family hid in the toilets on the top floor until dawn. They first descended with ropes into the “death strip.” Then they threw one of the ropes over the Wall, which was secured by helpers on the western side, and finally escaped into West Berlin.

18: Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Zimmerstrasse, looking east

Mitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Zimmerstrasse, looking eastMitte, adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Zimmerstrasse, looking east (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

The Wall divided Zimmerstrasse. Before the Nazis took power, the street was part of the famous newspaper district established in the late 19th century. On the left, the former Markthalle III building can be seen. After 1910, the Clou concert hall was located here. The National Socialist party used Markthalle III to hold rallies and print propaganda leaflets. During Berlin’s division, the building was situated in the inaccessible border area. At the other end of Zimmerstrasse (26-27), a monument reminds recalls Peter Fechter, who was shot and killed by GDR border guards when he tried to escape on August 17, 1962.

19: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse) (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Checkpoint Charlie is the most famous border crossing between East and West Berlin. It was used by members of the Allied military, diplomats, foreigners, and GDR citizens. It was off limits to citizens of the Federal Republic and West Berliners. In the fall of 1961, SED leaders tried to limit the access rights of the Western Allies. The situation escalated. On October 27, 1961, US and Soviet tanks were mobilized on both sides of the border. On the evening of January 5, 1974, GDR policeman Burkhard Niering, 23, was shot and killed at the border crossing. He had taken a passport control officer hostage and, with a machine gun in hand, tried to force his escape to the west.

20: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse)Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Checkpoint Charlie (corner of Friedrichstrasse and Zimmerstrasse) (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Checkpoint Charlie also witnessed a number of successful escape attempts: On January 17, 1986, a 21-year-old telecommunications worker from East Berlin made it across to West Berlin; a 32-year-old professional driver Hans-Joachim Pofahl rammed a truck laden with five tons of gravel through the barrier installations at the crossing point and managed to take his 26-year-old girlfriend and their eight-month-old baby to the West. Today, the area surrounding Checkpoint Charlie is a popular tourist attraction. On August 13, 2000, a replica of the original guard house was installed here and is now one of Berlin’s the most iconic images. There is currently discussion of rebuilding the area with apartments, offices, and even a Cold War museum.

21: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Charlottenstrasse and Zimmerstrasse, view from Friedrichstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Charlottenstrasse and Zimmerstrasse, view from FriedrichstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Charlottenstrasse and Zimmerstrasse, view from Friedrichstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Charlottenstrasse extends from the Kreuzberg neighborhood to Mitte and runs parallel to the bustling Friedrichstrasse. On June 28, 1962, at the corner of Zimmerstrasse and Jerusalemer Strasse, 20-year-old border guard Reinhold Huhn was shot and killed by West Berliner Rudolf Müller. The escapee-helper tried to facilitate the freedom of his own family through a tunnel he had dug himself.

22: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Alexandrinenstrasse and Stallschreiberstrasse, view along Stallschreiberstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Alexandrinenstrasse and Stallschreiberstrasse, view along StallschreiberstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Alexandrinenstrasse and Stallschreiberstrasse, view along Stallschreiberstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

The Berlin Wall stood between Alexandrinenstrasse and Alte Jakobstrasse, following the sidewalk along Stallschreiberstrasse. The area remained undeveloped until 2017. In the early morning hours of September 13, 1964, at the end of Stallschreiberstrasse, GDR border patrol officers fired 300 rounds at Michael Meyer. He was struck eight times and suffered severe injuries. A US military officer pulled him to the western side. On the same day, American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. visited Berlin. News agencies reported that he rushed to the scene of the failed escape. There, he spoke about “dividing walls of hostility.” And, when speaking at the Waldbühne venue in West Berlin and in two East Berlin churches, he remarked: “For here on either side of the wall are God’s children and no man-made barrier can obliterate that fact.”

23: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and SebastianstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Until East-Berlin parliament decided to rename it Heinrich-Heine-Strasse in 1960, the street bore the name Prinzen- und Neanderstrasse. At its southern end, flanking Kreuzberg, the “Plattenbau” (large panel system-building) neighborhood Heine-Viertel was built from 1959 to 1961. Later, buildings of the same type would be erected at the northern end of the street. Before the Wall fell, there was a border crossing at the southern end of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse for citizens of the Federal Republic, GDR, and diplomats.

24: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and SebastianstrasseFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse and Sebastianstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

West Berliner Siegfried Noffke, age 22, and two friends wanted to help their families escape to the West through an improvised tunnel. When they tried to access the tunnel on June 28, 1962 in the basement of Heinrich-Heine-Strasse 49, the unarmed men wound up in an ambush and came under heavy fire. Noffke finally died of his injuries.

25: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Legiendamm/Waldemarstrasse, view of St.-Michael’s-Church

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Legiendamm/Waldemarstrasse, view of St.-Michael’s-ChurchFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Legiendamm/Waldemarstrasse, view of St.-Michael’s-Church (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Waldemarstrasse belonged to the West Berlin borough of Kreuzberg, which is now a part of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. Behind Waldemarstrasse, there is a park with an ornamental pool called Engelbecken. In 1961, the GDR had it backfilled to convert into part of the death strip along the Wall.

26: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Leuschnerdamm adjoining Engelbecken

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Leuschnerdamm adjoining EngelbeckenFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, Leuschnerdamm adjoining Engelbecken (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosentha)

At Leuschnerdamm, the Wall touched the sidewalks in front of the buildings on the western side. Today, Engelbecken is full of water again and surrounded by trees. After the demolition of the Wall, the park was gradually restored. At the time of the city’s division, the area was flattened to make way for the “death strip.”

27/28: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/Bethaniendamm

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/BethaniendammFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/Bethaniendamm (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/BethaniendammFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg adjoining Mitte, corner of Adalbertstrasse/Bethaniendamm (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

During the Division of Berlin, between Bethaniendamm and Engeldamm, Adalbertstrasse was divided by the Wall. On April 9, 1969, Johannes Lange, 28, was shot and killed trying to escape at the corner of Engeldamm (then named Fritz-Heckert-Strasse). The bullets came from two watchtowers.

29: Mitte adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Köpenicker Strasse/Bethaniendamm, looking towards St.-Thomas-Church

Mitte adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Köpenicker Strasse/Bethaniendamm, looking towards St.-Thomas-ChurchMitte adjoining Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, corner of Köpenicker Strasse/Bethaniendamm, looking towards St.-Thomas-Church

In the 19th century, the era of industrialisation, new traffic infrastructure was introduced to downtown Berlin. Trade companies and factories set up their operations on Köpenicker Strasse. In the Gründerzeit era (the “founders’ period,” ca. 1870-1914), numerous rows of residential buildings were built. After the Second World War, the section of Köpenicker Strasse northwest of Bethaniendamm became part of the Soviet sector, i.e. East Berlin. The south-eastern section was part of Kreuzberg, i.e. West Berlin (today a part of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg). Starting August 13, 1961, near Bethaniendamm, the street was divided by the Wall’s barricades. After Germany was reunified, clubs, bars, and new businesses settled in and around Köpenicker Strasse.

30: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Osthafen, view of Oberbaumbrücke

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Osthafen, view of OberbaumbrückeFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Osthafen, view of Oberbaumbrücke (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

In early 1990, the former Wall separating the hinterland and Stralauer Allee from the “death strip” was painted by artists. Today, it is called East Side Gallery and featured in virtually every travel guide. In this part of the city, the river Spree belonged to East Berlin. Nevertheless, as the Osthafen harbor was located in the border area, navigation was limited. Still, the flow of goods increased over time: from 1969 to 1989, 2.2 to 2.8 million tons were transported. From 1971, the most important commodity in East Berlin was construction materials for residential buildings. Today, media companies and fashion labels are headquartered here, while popular clubs and rooftop bars have made the area a hotspot for night-time entertainment and events.

31: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Oberbaum Bridge

Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Oberbaum BridgeFriedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Oberbaum Bridge (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

The bridge Oberbaumbrücke, a landmark of the modern borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzbergs, is an important crossing of the river Spree. After the Wall was constructed, street and rail traffic on the bridge was suspended. A pedestrian border crossing for West Berliners and GDR citizens was then installed. On October 5, 1961, Udo Düllick, 25, died when attempting to escape across the river. Philipp Held, Wolf-Olaf Muszynski, Ulrich Krzemien, and Bernd Lehmann also drowned when trying to escape between Elsenbrücke and Schillingbrücke, On October 8, 1962, 60-year-old Anton Walzer was shot and killed when trying to escape near Oberbaumbrücke. Werner Probst, Hans Räwel, Heinz Müller, and Manfred Weylandt all later met similar fates. By 1975, five children drowned on the Kreuzberg side of the river Spree because potential rescuers were afraid of being shot by the border guard. It was not until October 29, 1975 that the government of West Berlin and the GDR signed a water-rescue agreement regarding the border.

32: Treptow-Köpenick, Lohmühlenstrasse and Jordanstrasse

Treptow-Köpenick, Lohmühlenstrasse and JordanstrasseTreptow-Köpenick, Lohmühlenstrasse and Jordanstrasse (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

There was a border crossing in today’s Treptow-Köpenick borough, near where Jordanstrasse merges into Lohmühlenstrasse. Until 1985, freight trains from the Treptow depot in West Berlin’s Neukölln traversed the border here to reach the grounds of the former Görlitzer Bahnhof train station. To do so, it was necessary to cross East Berlin territory using a special bridge (right side). Stasi and border patrol officers checked the trains from above for refugees. There were also two watchtowers. The Wall ran alongside the Landwehrkanal. Today, it is possible to stroll across the canal and head to Kreuzberg.

33: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Onckenstrasse, view from Onckenstrasse, looking east.

Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Onckenstrasse, view from Onckenstrasse, looking east.Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Onckenstrasse, view from Onckenstrasse, looking east. (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Onckenstrasse runs from Alt-Treptow (now part of the Treptow-Köpenick borough) to Neukölln. From August 1962 onward, the street was split by the Wall from the corner of Harzer Strasse.

34: Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Bouchéstrasse

Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and BouchéstrasseNeukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Harzerstrasse and Bouchéstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

On March 3, 1965, a successful escape was made using a rope. Tying together four 50-meter pieces of clothesline to a window frame on the fourth floor of a building, Dieter W., 26, descended to the first floor. He pushed himself off a windowsill and managed to swing over the Wall and jump into West Berlin. Although he broke his ankle, Dieter W. nevertheless landed safely in the West Berlin borough of Neukölln.

35: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow

Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of TreptowNeukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

On the reverse side of this historic photo, West Berlin police noted: ““4/18/1963 - Repair work on the sector border Neukölln/Treptow, Elsenstrasse after 19-year-old East Berliner broke through Wall using Soviet armored personnel carrier.”. The previous day, Wolfgang Engels stole a Soviet BTR-152 and tried to break through the border. However, he got stuck about halfway and was shot at. Despite his severe injuries, he could be rescued on the West side.

36: Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow

Neukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of TreptowNeukölln, adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Elsenstrasse and Heidelberger Strasse, view of Treptow (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

In June 1962, 20 people, including several children, escaped through a tunnel underneath Heidelberger Strasse. The channel’s length was approximately 30 to 40 meters. It started from the basement of the Heidelberger Krug, a Neukölln pub, and ended in a photography store in Treptow. A few months earlier, on March 27, 1962, Heinz Jercha , 27, was shot and killed near Heidelberger Strasse as he tried to help other people escape to the West through a tunnel.

37: Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Heidelberger Strasse and Bouchéstrasse

Neukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Heidelberger Strasse and BouchéstrasseNeukölln adjoining Treptow-Köpenick, corner of Heidelberger Strasse and Bouchéstrasse (© Polizeihistorische Sammlung Berlin/Alexander Kupsch inklusive Montage)

Erich Kühn, 62, was shot near this intersection in Kiefholzstrasse, on November 26, 1965. In trying to escape, he sustained multiple injuries to his stomach and died eight days later.

38: Dreilinden, municipality of Kleinmachnow, Brandenburg

Dreilinden, municipality of Kleinmachnow, BrandenburgDreilinden, municipality of Kleinmachnow, Brandenburg (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

After the Drewitz border crossing was established and the Autobahn was relocated in 1969, a Soviet T34 tank was placed atop a pedestal beneath the Autobahn. It served as a memorial to the Red Army’s victory over Nazi Germany. The Soviet Army removed the tank in December 1990. In 1992, artist Eckhard Haisch installed on the pedestal a pink Soviet-type snowplough . In 1995, the artwork was declared a protected monument. West Berliners mostly associated the Drewitz border crossing with endless waiting times when leaving the city for their holidays. They had to drive past the tank when going west or south on the transit route, and when returning home. The border crossing was demolished in 1993. Only the command tower was preserved. Today, it stands as a monument. The Checkpoint Bravo association also uses it for exhibitions and events.

39: Potsdam, view of Berlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Glienicker Brücke (bridge)

Potsdam, view of Berlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Glienicker Brücke (bridge)Potsdam, view of Berlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Glienicker Brücke (bridge) (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

Glienicke Bridge connects Berlin with Potsdam. The border ran through the middle of the bridge. In the GDR, it was called “Unity Bridge”. Between 1961 and the early 1980s, only Allied military were allowed to cross the border here, but they also required special permission. Between 1962 and 1986, East and West exchanged senior intelligence officers here on three different occasions. On February 10, 1962, Rudolf Iwanowitsch Abel was exchanged for Francis Gary Powers. On March 11, 1988, three young men used a stolen truck to break through the barriers on the bridge and successfully made their way to West Berlin. On November 10, 1989, Glienicker Brücke was reopened, allowing regular traffic to flow in both directions.

40: Spandau borough, Staaken station

Spandau borough, Staaken stationSpandau borough, Staaken station (© Bildmontage: Alexander Kupsch, historisches Foto: Berliner Mauer-Archiv „Hagen Koch“, Drohnenfoto: Thomas Rosenthal)

In 1976, a train station was built in Staaken to monitor travellers between West Berlin and Hamburg. Previously, only freight trains had been checked here. Stasi passport control officers wearing border patrol uniforms would enter the trains at the station to inspect travellers’ ID cards or passports. In addition, before departing for West Berlin, the trains were checked from the outside and underneath to make sure no one was hiding. The station was further secured by high walls and barbed wire to prevent East German citizens from jumping onto the trains. Since 1998, Staaken has been a regular stop for regional trains connecting Berlin with Brandenburg.


Deutschland Archiv

Illustration, die Kathrin und Ereignisse rund um den Mauerfall 1989 zeigt.
Messenger-Projekt

Der Mauerfall und ich

Es ist Leipzig im Spätsommer des Jahres 1989. Die Studentin Kathrin und ihre Freundinnen und Freunde erleben eine Zeit des Umbruchs in der DDR. Im November fällt die Mauer und damit die Grenze, die Deutschland und die Deutschen viele Jahrzehnte trennte. Über ihre Erlebnisse hat Kathrin von August bis November 2019 im bpb-Messengerprojekt "Der Mauerfall und ich" berichtet.

Mehr lesen

Die Mauer. 1961 bis 2021

Bildmontagen und eine VR-Animation

Anlässlich des 60. Jahrestags des Mauerbaus erinnert das Deutschland Archiv der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung/bpb mit 46 Bildmontagen und einer Virtual-Reality-Animation an das Bauwerk, das die Stadt über 28 Jahre lang teilte.

Mehr lesen

Themenseite

60 Jahre Mauerbau

Die Berliner Mauer trennte mehr als 28 Jahre lang Ost und West. Sie ist zum Symbol der konfliktreich verkanteten Nachkriegsordnung der Alliierten geworden. Zwischen 1961 und 1989 wurden mindestens 140 Menschen an der Berliner Mauer getötet oder kamen in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit dem DDR-Grenzregime ums Leben. Darüber hinaus verstarben mindestens 251 Reisende aus Ost und West vor, während oder nach Kontrollen an Berliner Grenzübergängen. In diesen Angaben nicht erfasst ist die unbekannte Anzahl von Menschen, die aus Kummer und Verzweiflung über die Auswirkungen des Mauerbaus auf ihre individuellen Lebensverhältnisse starben.


Mehr lesen

NEU: "(Ost)Deutschlands Weg 1989-2021". 80 Studien zur Lage des Landes

Ein Mosaik der (ost)deutschen Transformationsgeschichte von 1989/90 bis in die Gegenwart. Mit Texten von Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk, Krisztina Slachta, Jens Reich, Marianne Birthler, Hans Modrow, Steffen Mau, Antonie Rietzschel, Andreas Zick, Esther Dischereit, Bernd Wagner, Naika Foroutan, Raj Kollmorgen und 70 weiteren AutorInnen. Der Doppelband mit 1.350 Seiten und zahlreichen Fotos kostet 7 Euro im Angebot der bpb.

Mehr lesen

Videoreportagen

Vom Einläuten der Friedlichen Revolution

Rund um den 7. Oktober 1989 herrschte Ausnahmezustand in mehreren Städten der DDR. Polizei und Stasi gingen gewaltsam gegen Demonstranten vor, die friedlich für Reformen eintraten. Ein filmischer Überblick.

Jetzt ansehen

Chronik der Mauer

Es erwartet Sie eine Fülle von multimedial aufbereiteten Informationen über Mauerbau und Mauerfall - und über die Opfer der Grenze.

Mehr lesen auf chronik-der-mauer.de

Themenseite

30 Jahre Mauerfall

Die Berliner Mauer war über 28 Jahre das Symbol der deutschen Teilung und des Kalten Krieges. Am 9. November 1989 reagierte die DDR-Regierung mit Reiseerleichterungen auf den Ausreisestrom und monatelange Massenproteste – die Mauer war geöffnet. Wir präsentieren ausgewählte Angebote zur Geschichte der Mauer und des Mauerfalls.

Mehr lesen

Deutschlandarchiv bei Twitter

Ausgebombt! Eine Zeitreise ins kriegszerstörte Berlin

31 Bildmontagen des Berliner Fotografen und Designers, Alexander Kupsch, aus historischen Fotos vom zerstörten Berlin und Aufnahmen aus dem Jahr 2015, zeigen, dass bei Kriegsende im Mai 1945 in der Stadt kaum ein Stein mehr auf dem anderen stand. Die Bildmontagen rücken die zerstörerische Kraft des Krieges erneut ins Bewusstsein, indem sie die Ruinen und Schuttberge aus dem Mai 1945 ins Berlin von heute übertragen.

Mehr lesen

Dossier

Stasi

Alles wissen, alles kontrollieren, Menschen manipulieren. Aus der Arbeitsweise der DDR-Geheimpolizei "Stasi" ist auch viel zu lernen über die Mechanismen von Diktaturen der Gegenwart. In der DDR überwanden couragierte Bürgerinnen und Bürger allerdings 1989 ihre Angst vor der "Staatssicherheit". Vor 30 Jahren wurde sie gänzlich entmachtet.

Mehr lesen

Online-Angebot der bpb und der Robert-Havemann-Gesellschaft

jugendopposition.de

Wie haben junge Menschen in der DDR mit Mut und Musik gegen Stasi und SED-Diktatur gekämpft? Zeitzeugen berichten. Mit zahlreichen Texten, Videos, Audios, Fotos und Dokumenten.

Mehr lesen auf jugendopposition.de

Online-Archiv

www.wir-waren-so-frei.de

Fast 7.000 private Filme und Fotos aus der Umbruchzeit 1989/90 sowie über 100 begleitende Erinnerungstexte. Dazu ost- und westdeutsche Medienberichte. Die persönlichen Erfahrungen der Fotografen und Filmemacher bieten zusammen mit der öffentlichen Berichterstattung vielfältige Blicke auf die historischen Ereignisse und deren Auswirkungen auf den Alltag in Ost und West.

Mehr lesen auf wir-waren-so-frei.de

Wird die DDR-Diktatur verharmlost? Und warum begann die intensive Auseinandersetzung mit der NS-Vergangenheit erst so spät? Die Deutung von Geschichte ist oft umstritten - und nicht selten ein Politikum.

Mehr lesen

13. August 1961: In den frühen Morgenstunden beginnt der Bau der Mauer, die Deutsche Teilung wird zementiert. Am Abend des 9. November 1989 kommt es zum Mauerfall. Bald 30 Jahre danach ist Deutschland in vielem noch immer ein Land mit zwei Gesellschaften.

Mehr lesen

Zu dem Thema "Children of Transition, Children of War, the Generation of Transformation from a European Perspective" diskutierten Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler auf der Deutschlandforschertagung 2016 vom 3. bis 5. November 2016 in der Universität Wien. Die Tagungsdokumentation gibt Einblick in die Themen und Ergebnisse.

Mehr lesen

Gedenkstätten, Museen, Dokumentationszentren, Mahnmale, Online-Angebote - zahlreiche Einrichtungen und Initiativen erinnern an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus, bieten Bildungsangebote zur Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus und engagieren sich für Überlebende und Jugendbegegnungen. Wo Sie welche Erinnerungsorte mit welchem pädagogischen Angebot finden, erfahren Sie in der Datenbank.

Mehr lesen auf bpb.de

Der Tag in der Geschichte

  • 21. Oktober 1949
    Bundeskanzler Adenauer betont im Bundestag, die BRD sei »allein befugt, für das deutsche Volk zu sprechen« (Alleinvertretungsanspruch). Sie erkenne daher nicht als verbindlich für das deutsche Volk an, was die »Sowjetzone« u. a. über die Oder-Neiße-Linie... Weiter
  • 21. Oktober 1969
    Der Bundestag wählt Willy Brandt (SPD) mit den Stimmen der FDP (251 von 249 erforderlichen) zum Bundeskanzler. Damit steht erstmals seit 39 Jahren (Kabinett Hermann Müller 1928 1930) und nach 20 Jahren ununterbrochener CDU/CSU-Herrschaft (1949 - 1969) wieder... Weiter
  • 21. Oktober 1987
    Erstmals seit der Teilung der Stadt treffen der West-Berliner Regierende Bürgermeister und der Ost-Berliner Oberbürgermeister zusammen: Eberhard Diepgen und Erhard Krack begegnen sich in der Marienkirche anlässlich der Feierlichkeiten zum 750-jährigen... Weiter
  • 20./21. Okt. 1950
    Die DDR nimmt erstmals an einer Außenministerkonferenz sozialistischer Staaten in Prag teil. Sie protestieren gegen Pläne, Deutschland zu remilitarisieren und in »Aggressionspläne« einzubeziehen. Statt dessen fordern sie, den Rat der Außenminister neu... Weiter

Messenger-Projekt

Der Mauerfall und ich

Es ist Leipzig im Spätsommer des Jahres 1989. Die Studentin Kathrin und ihre Freundinnen und Freunde erleben eine Zeit des Umbruchs in der DDR. Im November fällt die Mauer und damit die Grenze, die Deutschland und die Deutschen viele Jahrzehnte trennte. Über ihre Erlebnisse hat Kathrin von August bis November 2019 im bpb-Messengerprojekt "Der Mauerfall und ich" berichtet.

Mehr lesen